Aircraft pilot – Pilotin Wed, 23 Nov 2022 02:01:00 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Aircraft pilot – Pilotin 32 32 How an airplane propeller works Wed, 23 Nov 2022 02:01:00 +0000

In the early years of aviation, propeller planes were the norm. However, in the 1950s, with the onset of the jet aircraft era, jet engines became the preferred choice for most large medium to long-range aircraft.

Propeller planes live on. They are still found in almost all general aviation aircraft and short-range transport. In most transport-category propeller-driven aircraft, the propeller is driven by a jet engine, and they are commonly referred to as turboprops. These turboprops are more efficient than pure jet aircraft on shorter routes.


Propeller theory

A propeller is a device made up of blades or airfoils that convert engine power into propeller thrust. The image below shows a labeled propeller.

Propeller blade

A labeled propeller blade. Photo: Oxford ATPL

As the propeller spins, the blades or airfoils experience an angle of attack just like the wings. This angle of attack generates a lift force, perpendicular to the chord of the blade. This force then splits into vertical and horizontal components. The horizontal component works in the direction of flight and is known as propeller thrust, while the vertical component works against the direction of propeller rotation. This component is called propeller torque and this force acts against the rotation of the propeller.

Propeller angle of attack

Propeller angle of attack. Photo: Oxford ATPL

As the propeller tips move faster than the root, the tips tend to generate more thrust. This can lead to excessive load on the tips. To solve this problem, the propeller blades are twisted so that the tips of the blades have a lower blade angle than the roots. This way, a similar angle of attack is maintained from root to tip, causing all parts of the propeller to generate thrust force of the same magnitude.

The Big Dowty R408 Prop - A Q400/Dash 8 propeller attached to a turbine engine, thus a turboprop

Propeller blades are designed so that the tips have a lower blade angle than the root. Photo: Joe Kunzler | single flight

The angle of the propeller blades and the angle of attack

The blade angle of a propeller is the angle between the plane of rotation of the propeller and the chord line of the blades. When the blades are attached to the hub of the propeller with a large blade angle, it is called a coarse pitch propeller, and when the blades are attached to the hub with a small blade angle, the propeller is said to be a pitch propeller. not end.

The angle of attack is the angle between the relative airflow acting on the blade and the chord line. This angle is affected by two main factors. The RPM (Revolutions Per Minute) of the propeller and the TAS (True Air Speed) of the aircraft.

Forces on a propeller blade

RPM and TAS vary the angle of attack of the propeller blades. Photo: FAA

When the RPM or TAS is changed, there is a change in the angle of attack on the propeller blades. When the RPM increases (fixed TAS), the angle of attack increases and when the TAS increases (fixed RPM), the angle of attack decreases. In the first case, the angle of attack could increase to the point where the blades stall. While in the latter case, the angle of attack could very well decrease to zero, reducing the thrust of the propeller to a very low value.

In some complex aircraft, the pilot can control the angle of the blades, and these propellers are called variable-pitch or constant-speed propellers, while in small aircraft, fixed-pitch propellers are used.

Fixed pitch propellers

Fixed-pitch propellers are propellers with a fixed blade angle. That is, it cannot be varied or changed in flight.

In the previous section, we talked about how TAS and RPM affect the angle of attack on the propeller blades. With a fixed-pitch propeller, the angle of the blades remains constant; the driver cannot modify it. Thus, in a low TAS and high rpm condition (for example, during a high power climb), the angle of attack of the blades can reach such a high value that they stall. Similarly, in a high TAS, low RPM condition (e.g., during a normal descent), the propeller’s angle of attack can reach a very low angle, reducing thrust to almost zero.

A very steep descent can reduce the angle of attack to the point where the propeller begins to spin the engine, and this can lead to an engine overspeed condition.

This, however, does not mean that fixed pitch propellers are bad. They can still be found in most general aviation aircraft and are chosen for their simplicity. Designers choose the most appropriate blade angle for the aircraft based on its operational requirements. For an aircraft designed for long range flight, a coarse pitch (a propeller with a large blade angle) may be preferred as it will spend most of its time cruising, flying at high speeds.


Variable-pitch or constant-speed propellers

To make propellers more efficient in different flight regimes, the angle of the propeller blades can be changed by pilot action. These types of propellers are known as variable pitch or constant speed propellers.

So how is the angle of the propeller blades controlled? In aircraft with constant speed propellers, a propeller control lever (prop lever) is available in the cockpit for the pilot. This lever is separate from the engine control lever or power levers. The pilot controls the propeller by varying its rpm by moving the propeller levers. When the propeller lever is moved forward, the rpm increases and when it is pulled back, the propeller rpm decreases. A system called the Constant Speed ​​Unit (CSU) then maintains the set rpm.

For example, during takeoff, the angle of attack decreases as the aircraft’s TAS increases. This is detected by the CSU and increases the angle of the blades to maintain the set pilot RPM.

Constant Speed ​​Unit (CSU) Operation

The Constant Speed ​​Unit (CSU) uses oil pressure to drive the angle of the propeller blades to a higher angle (coarse pitch) or a lower angle (fine pitch). The CSU is driven by the motors and can detect if the propeller is overspeeding or underspeeding.

The main components of the CSU are:

  • The speeder spring.
  • Flyweights.
  • A control valve.

CSU Propeller

CSU propeller. Photo: Oxford ATPL

As the pilot moves the propeller lever forward or backward, it changes the spring tension of the speeder. When moved backward, the tension is lowered and when moved forward, the tension is increased.

The flyweights rotate with the engine and it is the behavior of the flyweight that determines the positioning of the oil control valve.

When the propeller is underspeed or if the angle of its blades is too high, the propeller rpm begins to decrease. This increases prop torque and the speeder spring tension can overcome the flyweights and cause them to collapse. This causes the control valve to drop, passing oil from the fine pitch side of the propeller while the coarse side is connected to the oil return.

This results in a reduction in the angle of the blade. When the angle of the blades decreases, the engine can transmit more torque to the propeller, which increases its speed. The rpm increases until the engine torque transmitted to the speeder spring via the flyweights can no longer overcome the spring tension. At this point, the propeller begins to spin at the rpm set by the pilot.


Behavior of the CSU when the propeller is underpowered. Photo: ATPL of Oxford.

Similarly, when the propeller is in an overspeed condition, the angle of the blades becomes too low or too fine, which causes the rpm to exceed the pilot’s setpoint. The RPM increases because the engine torque is greater than that of the propeller. This causes the flyweights to spread due to the increased centrifugal force. This causes the control valve to rise, passing oil on the coarse pitch side while the fine pitch is tied to the oil return, causing the propeller blades to increase their blade angle. This increases the torque of the propeller, which puts a force on the speeder spring and thus pushes the flyweights down until the rpm reaches the pilot’s set point.


Behavior of the CSU when the propeller is in boost condition. Photo: ATPL of Oxford.

In large turboprops, a condition lever is used instead of a propeller lever. The condition lever works like a propeller lever in that it controls the speed of the propeller. In addition to this, the condition lever also controls the fuel supply to the engines during engine start. It is also used to shut off fuel when stopping the engine.

Screenshot 2022-11-21 at 16.49.47

Condition levers of an ATR 76. Photo: ATR

Propeller feathering

One of the most important characteristics of a propeller is its ability to feather. When the propeller is feathered, its blade angle is nearly 90 degrees. This angle is called the angle of attack at zero lift. In this position, the propeller can no longer generate thrust.

Screenshot 2022-11-21 at 17.44.42

A feathered accessory sits at 90 degrees to the relative airflow. Photo: FAA

This is an important feature in an engine failure situation. In a variable pitch propeller, if one motor loses power, the propeller rpm naturally decreases. This causes the CSU to thin the propeller to the point where the blade angle becomes too thin and it begins to windmill. This causes the air to attack the blades from the front, generating a negative thrust force. This thrust acts against the direction of flight and adds to the aircraft’s drag. In an engine failure condition, the drag of a windmilling propeller can be very detrimental to the overall performance and control of the aircraft.

To avoid this, the feathering mechanism exists. When the propeller is feathered, the airflow cannot interact with it and there is no risk of spinning. In large aircraft, propeller feathering is very important to meet takeoff performance if an engine failure occurs during roll. Thus, in such aircraft, an automatic feathering system exists. Pilots “arm” the system for takeoff, and if an engine failure occurs during the takeoff roll, the propeller will automatically feather, preserving aircraft performance.

Most turboprops have their propellers feathered when the engines are shut down. This way they appear pointed forward. As the helices come out of the feather, they become flatter.

Screenshot 2022-11-21 at 17.25.54

In the left image, the blades are flatter, and therefore the propeller is not feathered while the right image shows a feathered propeller. Photo: ATR

]]> Global Pilots on LATAM Airlines Flight 2213 Sun, 20 Nov 2022 16:30:00 +0000

MONTREAL–(BUSINESS WIRE)–IFALPA is closely monitoring developments in Lima, Peru, following Friday’s runway collision involving a departing LATAM Airlines A320 and a fire truck crossing the runway. Our condolences go out to the families and friends of the firefighters who lost their lives in this tragedy, and our thoughts go out to those injured.

IFALPA insists on the need to avoid speculation on the contributing factors of this accident. Only a thorough and complete accident investigation, conducted in accordance with ICAO Annex 13, will provide the recommendations needed to advance aviation safety and prevent a recurrence. The Federation will offer the expertise of its local accredited accident investigators to the relevant investigating authorities to help gather facts and relevant safety and security information.

The flight crew of LATAM 2213 was also arrested and detained in Lima until last night. The Federation considers this situation unacceptable. Keeping people who are already under intense psychological pressure due to an accident in custody is extremely detrimental to flight safety and can only hamper the investigation. Furthermore, it shows a complete disregard for the principles of positive safety culture set out in Annexes 13 (Aviation Accident and Incident Investigation) and 19 (Safety Management) of the Convention on International Civil Aviation. . It may also lead the public to conclude that the accident resulted from the intentional actions of the flight crew, rather than technical problems or a series of errors from multiple factors.

In similar circumstances, the flight crew should receive immediate medical attention and assessment. Under no circumstances is it appropriate to interview them immediately following an accident or incident until they have been assessed by qualified medical personnel who can determine their mental and physical fitness to provide accurate information to investigators.

IFALPA therefore urges the Republic of Peru to adhere to and fully implement the principles of ICAO’s positive safety culture, especially in the wake of such a tragic accident.

Note to editors:

The International Federation of Airline Pilots Associations represents more than 100,000 pilots in nearly 100 countries. IFALPA’s mission is to promote the highest level of aviation safety worldwide and to be the global advocate for the flying profession, providing representation, services and support to both our members and the aeronautical industry.

©2022 The International Federation of Airline Pilots Associations. This publication is provided for informational purposes only, in all cases pilots should follow their company’s instructions and procedures. In the interest of flight safety, reproduction of this publication in whole or in part is encouraged. It may not be offered for sale or used commercially. All reprints must credit IFALPA.

Elbit and Fokker Enter into Partnership Covering Flight Training and Sustainment | New Thu, 17 Nov 2022 19:15:45 +0000

The Israeli company Elbit Services and the Dutch group Fokker Services have entered into a partnership covering military aviation services.

Under the agreement, announced November 17 at the Nederlands Industries for Defense and Security (NEDS) conference in Rotterdam, Fokker will provide maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) services for military training programs in ‘Elbit.

“By combining our maintenance expertise with the advanced military flight training capabilities of Elbit Systems, we offer defense customers a complete solution,” said Roland van Dijk, Managing Director of Fokker Services. “This is the first step in this new collaboration, and going forward, we will explore ways to further develop and combine the unique skills and capabilities of both companies,” he adds.

Elbit Vice President of Academies and Services, Adi Raviv, said the partnership was part of the company’s efforts to expand its role in Europe.

“This latest cooperation is part of Elbit Systems’ broader strategy for the Dutch market, as the company seeks to strengthen its partnerships with national industry leaders,” says Raviv. “The overall goal is to improve Elbit Systems’ ability to meet the Dutch customer’s needs in a personalized manner with respect to current and future supply programs.”

Elbit notes that the company operates some 200 aircraft worldwide and offers flight and ground training. “Elbit has a proven track record in selecting, sourcing, operating and maintaining fleets,” the company says.

Among Elbit’s aviation training contracts is the UK Royal Air Force Military Flight Training System, which covers the provision and support of pilot training for the RAF. The program includes 23 Grob G 120TPs, 14 Beechcraft T-6Cs and five Embraer Phenom 100s, according to Elbit.

Fokker describes its MRO offerings as covering “transportation, surveillance, other special mission aircraft and helicopters in addition to providing engineering services to various customers.”

Since 2017, Fokker says it has also delivered standard parts for Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) aircraft, helicopters and multiple support systems.

Authorities identify six dead in crash at Dallas air show Mon, 14 Nov 2022 19:25:35 +0000

Authorities identified the six people killed Saturday afternoon when two military jets collided mid-air during an air show over northern Texas.

The names were released by the Commemorative Air Force, a Dallas-based nonprofit that put on the show. The group identified the deceased as: Terry Barker, Craig Hutain, Kevin “K5” Michels, Leonard “Len” Root, Dan Ragan and Curt Rowe. Barker is a former Keller councilman and a retired American Airlines pilot, and Root was also a retired American Airlines pilot.

All six perished when a B-17 Flying Fortress bomber collided with a P-63 Kingcobra fighter jet, The Associated Press reported on Saturday. The B-17’s typical crew is around four to five people, the AP added. The air show was dubbed the Wings Over Dallas WWII Air Show and was held at the Dallas Executive Airport.

“We are heartbroken to report that the following members of the Commemorative Air Force traveled west on Saturday, November 12, 2022, to the Wings Over Dallas WWII Airshow while performing,” the Commemorative Air Force said in a statement. “Please join us in mourning the loss of our good friends and fellow Airmen.”

The National Transportation Safety Board, a federal agency that investigates civil aviation and other accidents, is investigating the accident. The council’s functions include determining the causes of accidents and issuing safety recommendations aimed at preventing similar occurrences.

Multiple videos posted to social media on Saturday showed the two planes colliding and the larger craft plummeting to the ground, causing a fiery explosion and an ensuing cloud of black smoke. No one on the ground was injured.

“The videos are heartbreaking. Please say a prayer for the souls who have taken to heaven to entertain and educate our families,” Dallas Mayor Eric Johnson said on Twitter Saturday.

The NTSB tweeted on Monday pictures of its investigators visiting the crash scene which included the charred wreckage of one of the planes.

The board is due to hold a press conference with additional updates on Monday afternoon.

KERA News is made possible through the generosity of our members. If you find these reports helpful, consider making a tax-deductible donation today. Thanks.

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Give everyone the same chance to become an airline pilot Fri, 11 Nov 2022 04:35:02 +0000

Indian civil aviation has witnessed the opening of eight new flight training schools in recent months, adding to the growing number of flight training organizations providing initial training. This will not only train aspiring pilots in the Indian cultural background, but also save a huge drain of foreign currency. While the outflow of currencies is blocked, there seems to be a growing concern about unfair trading practices when the cost of training is compared. There is an immediate need to rationalize the cost of training in the monopoly segment of student airline pilot training. The benefit of lower training costs should be passed on to consumers instead of charging the same cost to internationally trained pilots.

Equal opportunities

Aviation is an attractive profession and young people aspire to become airline pilots. However, the high cost of training to the tune of INR 85 lac to INR 1.2 crore is a deterrent for most people. The question arises, why should becoming an airline pilot be the privilege of those who can afford the exorbitant/prohibitive cost of training? It also prevents young people from Tier II/III cities from entering the profession and limits the quality of the talent pool. These young people have aspirations, are highly motivated and would be more loyal to the organization compared to the eligible class. It is therefore necessary to ensure equal opportunities by rationalizing the cost of training.

Although airlines are not regulated/required to limit the cost of training or course fees in a free market, this matter falls under the jurisdiction of the Competition Commission of India (CCI), Business Practices unfair.
Airlines sometimes prefer to recruit pilots who have a type rating. It also causes disproportionate demand since only the privileged few who can afford the cost of type rating (aircraft specific, e.g. A320/B737) are eligible and merit plays no role in selection.

I would like to elaborate by giving you an example. Airline A recently announced a cadet pilot program with aviation training school X which will train cadets in India. Airline A previously announced a tie-up with aviation training school Y which will train cadets outside India. Amazingly, both programs in India and outside India are advertised at the same flight training cost of INR 85 lac.

Prior to the training tie-up with Airline A, X Aviation had announced that the advantage of training in India over outside was mainly the considerably lower cost. An advertised CPL cost in India of 30 INR lac versus 60 INR lac to fly to the US (current exchange rates): The benefit of half the cost of training when training is conducted in India. However, after the merger with the airline, the cost of training increased significantly. There have been no significant changes to the trainers or the training aircraft or other course materials.

Unfair commercial practice

If Airline A cadet pilot training cost advertised by Y Aviation for training outside India (New Zealand and UAE) is INR 85 lac (CPL 60 lac + license conversion 4 lac + 25 lac type rating), then training in India with X aviation partnership should be around INR 55 lac (CPL 30 lac + 25 lac type rating). A difference of around INR 30 lac per caddy. If 400 pilots are trained over a period of time, this cost difference would be around INR 120 crore. It can be assumed that airline A keeps the price of training at the same level as all training providers, regardless of training location and currency.

There are other airlines that provide cadet pilot training at such exorbitant costs dangling the carrot of a letter of intent to future cadets in a monopolistic market.

There is an urgent need to shift the cost advantage to cadets to make aviation and pilot careers more affordable and to get better talent rather than limiting it to those with the money to pay the big payouts.

The solution

The solution to this problem which affects society and quality in terms of talent is to monitor and control training prices as is done by UGC and AICTE to prevent unfair practices and prices.

Another approach would be to establish a common entrance test by the regulator so that only deserving applicants are selected, thereby ensuring security through selection. There must be two training streams for the Commercial Pilot License (CPL).

1. CPL Airline
2. Amateur PLC

If a person wishes to take an airline CPL, the course and concepts must be synchronized, developed and controlled by a committee with the participation of the airlines. Similarly, the committee shall categorize the flight schools according to the quality of the trainers, the training provided in Cat 1 or 2. The airline’s CPL must be carried out only in the flight schools of Cat 1. The trainees selected by the airlines must be trained by the airlines and the additional costs must be borne by the airlines.

Whichever approach is chosen, the cost of training should be rationalized immediately so that trainees are not burdened with exorbitant courses and others who cannot afford the course due to their economic circumstances and their limitations have the same chances.

The end result will be that airlines will have a talent pool of highly motivated and well trained professionals.



The opinions expressed above are those of the author.


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Viral Video Shows The Effect Of G-Force On This Female Pilot’s Face Tue, 08 Nov 2022 10:07:11 +0000

There are many funny videos online, and some of them can be reasoned because of science. Our daily life revolves around science, from waking up in the morning to returning to sleep at night. Another puzzling video has made its way around the internet of an aging pilot’s face under the effects of G-force. The 32-second video opens with a female pilot supposedly flying in a fighter jet and takes a turn when his face changes.

After a few images where the pilot takes turns, the force of the atmosphere makes his face wrinkle like that of an old lady. Within seconds, his face was back to normal. The pilot heaved a huge sigh after completing the turn. She even took a second to look at the camera and stuck her tongue out and relaxed.

Top showsha video

The post’s caption read, “The effects of G-force on the face.”

Twitterati are shocked by the scientific phenomena that occurred in the video. One of the users said, “Using a fighter or attack aircraft would surely age you faster due to the g-forces involved.”

“She went from 25 to 75 in seconds! Amazing!” added another person.

Another user commented, “Bro she just got a glimpse of what she’s going to look like as an older woman lol.”

Another person joked, “If you want to see what someone will look like when they get older, take them on this ride as a first date.”

The video has exceeded around six million people and has been retweeted by 6,532 Twitter users since it was uploaded.

For those unfamiliar with G-Force, it means that when an aircraft’s lift is greater than the force of gravity, controlled flight becomes possible, which was demonstrated by the Wright brothers in 1903.

Read all Latest Buzz News here

Air Force had no intention of flying penis model: US military Sat, 05 Nov 2022 03:18:00 +0000

A US Air Force pilot has drawn a flight model that appears to resemble a penis – in what the military says was a total accident.

Aircraft enthusiasts noticed that the KC-135 aerial tanker flying near a Russian base in Syria on Wednesday left a strange pattern on flight radars.

The plane made a tight loop in the waters between Cyrus and Lebanon, creating an oval shape before making two smaller circles at the base and looking back a second time at the top of the oval, according to FlightRadar24.

The seemingly phallic shape resulting from the sporadic trajectory was unintentional, a USAFE spokesperson told the military newspaper Task & Purpose.

“The KC-135 Stratotanker (RAKE71) operating in the Eastern Mediterranean adjusted between several different flight paths during the mission,” Captain Ryan Goss said in a statement.

“Although these adjustments and movements appear to create a vulgar outline, the pilots or the unit had no intention of doing so. As we continue to review this, USAFE-AFAFRICA, AMC [Air Mobility Command] and the USAF will continue to maintain the highest standards of professionalism and airmanship.

Air Force Col. Damien Pickart, the Air Mobility Command’s top spokesman, told the newspaper that the agency was asking the crew for details about the incident, but doesn’t believe they have. acted inappropriately.

Despite the miliary’s objections, this wouldn’t be the first time its members have pulled off aerial, genital-themed pranks.

In 2017, two Navy aviators decided to use the jet’s contrails to draw a giant “celestial penis” over central Washington because it would be “awesome”.

Navy officials initially recommended a disciplinary hearing for the pilots, but ended up recommending “non-punitive letters of instruction.”

Emirates and the IATA Marshals Industry to Share Best Practices in Pilot Training and Flight Safety Wed, 02 Nov 2022 11:09:06 +0000

An aircraft cockpit can be a complex, challenging, and high-risk environment that demands intense focus from pilots and the ability to react and make informed decisions with agility, aided by technology. As the demand for air travel increases dramatically and airlines expand their operations, pilot training is once again at the center of attention, as they are responsible for the safety of millions of passengers and crew every day, on every flight, on every route in the world. Now more than ever, the aviation industry needs to use the latest best practices to train its workforce for peak performance.

In the first-ever forum of its kind, Emirates and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) jointly organized a workshop on pilot training and flight safety for the aviation industry. Organized by Emirates Flight Operations Training in conjunction with IATA, the Evidence Based Training – Competency Based Training Assessment Workshop was held at Emirates Aviation College Dubai on 28 October 2022 .

Training experts from airlines, including Lufthansa, Singapore Airlines, Iceland Air, UAE Presidential Flight, Etihad, flydubai, Air Arabia and Indigo and civil aviation authorities, such as the General Civil Aviation Authority, UAE (GCAA) and the Irish Aviation Authority, attended the workshop. Aircraft manufacturers Airbus and Boeing, as well as the International Federation of Airline Pilots Associations (IFALPA) and training institutions including Emirates Flight Training Academy (EFTA) and CAE, were present.

Organized by Emirates Flight Operations Training in conjunction with IATA, the Evidence Based Training – Competency Based Training Assessment Workshop was held at Emirates Aviation College Dubai on 28 October 2022 .

Covering an entire day of discussions and presentations, industry participants gathered and shared best practices and challenges regarding how to develop, implement and manage effective training and assessment programs based on evidence (EBT) and competency-based.

Speakers from Emirates included: Captain Bader Al Marzooqi, Vice President of Flight Training; Dr. Nicklas Dahlstrom, Human Factors Manager; Capt. David Swarbrick, training manager, Boeing and Capt. Stephen Mercer, Flight Training Standards Manager. Other speakers included: Captain Yann Renier, Training and Licensing Manager, Safety and Flight Operations Division, IATA; Captain Jason Alves, Chief Flight Instructor, flydubai; Captain Olivier Mazzoleni, Deputy Director of Airbus Training Worldwide; Captain Graham McNally, CBTA Program Manager, Boeing Global Services; Captain Richard Lenz, A380 Chief Training Captain, Lufthansa and Captain Chris Ranganathan, Chief Training Officer, CAE.

Captain Bader Al Marzooqi, Vice President Flight Training, Emirates, said: “The forum was an excellent example of collaboration and partnership with key stakeholders in the aviation industry to increase efficiency and effectiveness of pilot training programs. We have shared critical insights, insights and best practices that will lead to actionable, actionable solutions that will positively impact the implementation of evidence-based training programs. The forum was a meeting of the minds and a great platform for the industry to come together to discuss common pilot training challenges. We thank IATA and all those who attended and contributed to the forum for their continued support.

Captain Yann Renier, Head of Training and Licensing, Safety and Flight Operations Division, IATA, observed: Training based with over 40 training managers representing airlines, training organizations and aircraft manufacturers. This event provided an opportunity to share the latest developments in CBTA and identify the key challenges the industry faces in implementing CBTA and share them with the 80 attendees who joined the workshop virtually. I would like to thank the participants who joined us in Dubai and virtually. The workshop illustrates the restart of operations and I am sure it will continue in the future.

Mr. Sham Suddin Bin Khalid, Airline Flight Operations Inspector and GCAA, said: “The Emirates workshop was a day of reflection and discussion on how best to train our pilots for the benefit of all. aviation safety. A collaborative effort, it was indeed encouraging to see the sharing of information and data among stakeholders, including airlines, manufacturers and training organizations. We hope that this conversation and cooperation will continue in the years to come, contribute to the vision of improving pilot skills and improve our industry’s safety record.

The workshop covered various topics, such as how to implement and scale up successful EBT and CBTA programs. Specifically, the challenges of developing curricula for such programs, developing and standardizing trainers, and managing and using training data were discussed. The event aims to be followed by others in order to continue to share best practices and develop pilot training for the benefit of the entire aviation industry.

SR-71 pilot recalls time his Blackbird flew so fast he and his RSO landed at Beale AFB almost a day before taking off from Kadena AB Sun, 30 Oct 2022 09:35:27 +0000
“Try this in any plane other than the SR-71. Plus, it’s actually a true story,” SR-71 Blackbird pilot David Peters.

The SR-71 Blackbird was designed to fly deep into hostile territory, avoiding interception with its tremendous speed and high altitude. The crew had to wear pressure suits similar to those worn by astronauts because the SR-71 could safely operate at altitudes greater than sixteen miles, or 25,908 m (85,000 ft), above the earth while flying at a top speed of Mach 3.3.

It is therefore not surprising that, thanks to its amazing flight characteristics, the Blackbird set many speed and altitude records throughout its career.

To give a real perspective of the incredible speed the iconic Blackbird could achieve, SR-71 pilot David Peters tells the following fabulous story.

David Peters in the cockpit of the SR-71

“I’m really tired of hearing ‘the story of LA speed’, so I thought I’d relay a mission that gives real perspective to the speed of the Blackbird.

“We were TDY at Det. 1 in Kadena AB, Okinawa. One of the birds had to be traded and my backseat, Ed Bethart, and I had to take him home. The replacement arrived on Friday and we were to leave on Saturday morning. So, in true Habu tradition, we greeted the incoming crew and went to happy hour Friday night at the officers club.

SR-71 pilot tells story of when his Blackbird flew so fast he and his RSO arrived at Beale AFB 17.5 hours before they left Kadena AB
David Peters and Ed Bethart

“We got up on Saturday morning and got ready to go home. Departure was scheduled for 1000. Everything went well and we left right on time. I left to do a passage through the Korean DMZ and then into the tankers in the Sea of ​​Japan. Good refueling and climbing to the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia and from there to other tankers off Adak in the Aleutian Islands. Another good refueling and heading to Beale AFB in California. We came in with a low pull approach in a closed circuit and landed. After decombination and debriefing, we dropped off our classified flight documents, jumped into a car and arrived at the officers’ club for Friday night happy hour at 4:30 p.m. 5:30 p.m. before leaving Kadena.

SR-71 Print
This print is available in multiple sizes at – CLICK HERE TO GET YOURS. SR-71A Blackbird 61-7972 “Skunkworks”

“Try this in any plane other than the SR-71. Plus, it’s actually a true story.

Be sure to check out the Habubrats Facebook page of Linda Sheffield Miller (the daughter of Col. Richard (Butch) Sheffield, Col. Sheffield was an SR-71 Reconnaissance Systems Officer) for Blackbird’s great photos and stories.

Photo credit: David Peters and US Air Force

Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird model
This model is available in multiple sizes at AirModels – CLICK HERE TO GET YOURS.

Linda Sheffield Miller

Grew up at Beale Air Force Base, California. I am a Habubrat. Graduated from North Dakota State University. Former substitute teacher in a public school (all subjects, all levels). Member of the DAR (Daughters of the Revolutionary War). I’m interested in history, especially the history of the SR-71. Married, mother of three wonderful daughters and four extremely handsome grandsons. I live near Washington, DC.

How a Twin Otter accident that day in 1993 prompted operational restructuring at Widerøe Thu, 27 Oct 2022 10:30:00 +0000

Exactly 29 years ago today, on October 27, 1993, Widerøe Flight 744 crashed near Berg in Overhalla, killing six of 19 passengers and crew. The accident prompted the Norwegian airline to reorganize its aircraft operating division.

The aircraft involved in the accident was a 19-year-old de Havilland Canada DHC-6-300 ‘Twin Otter’ registered LN-BNM. At the time of the accident, the aircraft had accumulated 40,453 flight hours and met all service requirements.

Both pilots were experienced and knew the airport

The captain was Jan Bjørstad, 43, an experienced pilot who had landed at Namsos Airport (OSY) 13 times in the year before the accident. The flight’s first officer was 34-year-old Trond Hamre, who had a total of 6,354 flying hours, including 1,356 on the Twin Otter. In the previous 12 months, he had landed at Namsos airport a total of 27 times.


Image: GC Map

Widerøe Flight 744 was a scheduled domestic flight from Trondheim-Værnes Airport (TRD) to Rørvik Airport (RVK) with a stopover in Namsos. At Trondheim, 300 pounds (136 kg) of cargo was loaded onto the Twin Otter, along with 17 passengers. The flight north to Namsos was estimated to be only 35 minutes.

A Twin Otter has a maximum takeoff weight of 12,511 lb (5,675 kg). When the plane took off, it was near maximum, at 12,040 pounds (5,641 kg). When loading the plane, the captain unfortunately made a mistake by not moving the passengers to seats that would have better distributed the weight.

The plane took off from Trondheim airport at 6:37 p.m. and climbed to an altitude of 5,000 feet. The captain decided that his descent would be first to 4,000 feet and then to 3,000 feet before turning towards localizer 255.

The aircraft would then descend to 2,100 feet towards the Namsos beacon. As the plane began its descent, it received a weather update that the wind was now blowing at 29 mph (47 km/h), with gusts of up to 46 mph (74 km/h).

Because the plan was to land on Runway 26 directly into wind, the pilots decided to increase the aircraft’s altitude for the descent. At 7:05 p.m. local time, the co-pilot announced that he had completed the landing checklist. This then prompted the Captain to begin his approach checklist for the flight.

Pilots didn’t realize how low they were

At 7:15 p.m. the aircraft passed over the Namsos beacon at an altitude of 2,100 feet, with the first officer confirming that he had the runway in sight. At 7:16 p.m., with a height of 500 feet, the captain said: “you don’t have to go any further.”

Seconds later, the plane struck some trees and crashed into a hill. Realizing what had happened, air traffic control (ATC) launched a rescue operation. When rescuers arrived at the scene, they found the two pilots dead, along with four of the passengers. All other passengers were seriously injured and required treatment.

The weather at the time of the accident was windy, with heavy rain and limited visibility. As this was not required, the Twin Otter was not equipped with a ground proximity warning system (GPWS) or a flight data recorder (FDR). However, it had a cockpit voice recorder (CVR), although this was also not required.

The investigation into the crash of Widerøe Flight 744

The Norwegian aviation authorities undertook a thorough investigation and determined that the following factors contributed to the accident:

  1. Widerøe had not implemented operational procedures that all pilots were required to follow.
  2. A lack of calls from the pilots during the approach.
  3. The crew made the final turn to the airport, of course.
  4. The pilot flying the aircraft continued to fly a visual approach in the dark without any reference to terrain.
  5. The crew did not know how far they were from the ground.

After the accident, Widerøe revised its procedures and grounded ten pilots who did not follow the new rules. As part of this operational restructuring, it also reorganized its reporting systems and its quality assurance department.

Source: Aviation Safety Network